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CHRISTIANITY   AND    HUMAN    RELATIONSHIPS

ness which congeals into moral rectitude and seems to
close up the windows of the soul and sometimes makes
gpod men so intolerable—in all of the world's literature
there is no place where it is attacked more persistently
and more profoundly than in the Bible.

The alternative that is put before us is what might
be called a positive kind of righteousness, in contrast
with the land which merely avoids breaking the Com-
mandments. We might even call it a creative kind,
since it cannot be exhausted by carrying out existing
fortnulas—love is presumed to be ever inventing or
discovering new things to do. On this system men
are not merely " good " or " bad," though they may
be more or less lacking in love and in the richness of
their natures. Just as Galileo transforms natural science
by refusing to say that some bodies had gravity and
others a corresponding levity—just as all the bearings
of a problem are changed when we say that bodies
merely differ from one another in weight—so in the
moral world all our mathematical calculations are
altered when we realise that human beings differ in
degree rather than in kind—the error is to talk of
"good" on the one side and "bad" on the other.
And we ought to be prepared to see that nations and
civilisations may fall not because of one man's criminality
but because of the smaller betrayals and shortcomings
of masses of respectable people. The positive and
creative land of righteousness can be redefined in a
further sense; for it is the morality of those who see
life as a mission and who know that there is something
to be done with this pathetic world. Even in the

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